ALPHA LIPOIC ACID
Alpha-lipoic acid is an organic compound in the body that acts as a potent antioxidant. It has shown to act as a strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory in the body.
ALA is crucial for digestion, absorption, and the creation of energy. It helps enzymes turn nutrients into energy.
Since humans can only produce ALA in small amounts, many people turn to supplements to increase their intake.
Studies have shown that heart and lung failure can be directly linked to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress naturally occurs with ageing and some studies have shown that ALA can reduce the amount of oxidative stress during ageing thereby reducing the risk of heart and lug disease.
Oxidative stress is also caused by air pollutants such as cigarette and industrial smoke. Studies show that ALA can reduce the amount of oxidative stress in people exposed to pollution.
Studies have shown that ALA, due to its strong antioxidative effect may protect the lungs against damage caused by smoke inhalation.
Lycopene is a plant nutrient with antioxidant properties. It’s the pigment that gives red and pink fruits, such as tomatoes, watermelons and pink grapefruit, their characteristic color.
Antioxidants protect your body from damage caused by compounds known as free radicals.
When free radical levels outnumber antioxidant levels, they can create oxidative stress in your body. This stress is linked to certain chronic diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, heart disease and Alzheimer’s
The human lung, due to the oxidative and ozone stress to which it is exposed, is particularly vulnerable to oxidative damage. Concentrations of dietary antioxidants such as Lycopene in the lung epithelial lining and lining fluids may provide protection against oxidative damage and some (albeit minor) studies have shown that it may have a protective association with Lung cancer.
In vitro studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells and provided valuable insights into the mechanisms by which carotenoids, such as lycopene exert their cellular and intracellular effects.
In addition, test-tube and animal studies show that lycopene may protect your body against damage caused by pesticides and herbicides.
Zinc is an essential trace element required for maintaining intestinal cells, bone growth, and immune function.
Most foods high in zinc are of animal origin, such as meats, fish and dairy products. These foods may be more difficult to access for low-income populations. Dietary fiber and compounds called phytates, which are often found in foods such as cereals, nuts and legumes, bind to zinc and result in poor absorption.
Studies have shown that Zinc supplementation decreases airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness to a common allergens.
Zinc is thought to help decrease susceptibility to acute lower respiratory tract infections by regulating various immune functions, including protecting the health and integrity of the respiratory cells during lung inflammation or injury.
These results suggest that Zinc could assist individuals who suffer from asthma caused by allergens and may assist athletes who suffer from hyperresponsiveness during exercise.
Manganese is a part of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), which is arguably one of the most important antioxidants in your body and is the principal antioxidant enzyme in the mitochondria (cells in which the processes of respiration and energy production occur).
Because mitochondria consume over 90% of the oxygen used by cells, they are especially vulnerable to oxidative stress.
Oxidative stress can be caused by several occurrences such as inhalation of toxins and allergens, lower respiratory tract infections as well as over exertion during exercise.
For this reason Manganese can be beneficial for individuals suffering from lower respiratory tract infections, asthma and can be beneficial to athletes during exercise by reducing the severity of oxidative stress during strenuous exercise.
Chromium is a mineral that exists in several forms. Although one dangerous form can be found in industrial pollution, a safe form is found naturally in many foods.
Chromium's best-defined task is to facilitate the action of insulin. Patients deficient in chromium develop severe diabetes that does not respond well to insulin but is corrected by chromium replacement.
Insulin resistance (apart from diabetes) in turn can cause heightened blood pressure, obesity and having high triglycerides.
Magnesium, an abundant mineral in the body, is naturally present in many foods, added to other food products, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines.
Magnesium is required for energy production, oxidative phosphorylation, and glycolysis. It contributes to the structural development of bone and is required for the synthesis of DNA, RNA, and the antioxidant glutathione. Magnesium also plays a role in the active transport of calcium and potassium ions across cell membranes, a process that is important to nerve impulse conduction, muscle contraction, and normal heart rhythm.
Magnesium and calcium play multiple dynamic roles in pulmonary structure and function. When magnesium is deficient, the action of calcium is enhanced. In contrast, an excess of magnesium blocks calcium. These interactions are important to the respiratory patient because the intracellular influx of calcium causes bronchial smooth-muscle contraction. The possibility exists that magnesium deficiency contributes to pulmonary complications. During the past few years, there has been an increase in calcium consumption in the US population but little change in magnesium intake, which has caused an imbalance in the calcium:magnesium ratio. Although serum levels are used to assess magnesium, cells can be deficient despite normal serum values. These findings indicate that pulmonary patients should be monitored routinely for magnesium deficiency. deficiency, cells can be deficient despite normal serum values. These findings indicate that pulmonary patients should be monitored routinely for magnesium deficiency.
Magnesium is a bronchodilator. It relaxes the bronchial muscles and expands the airways, allowing more air to flow in and out of the lungs. This can relieve symptoms of asthma, such as shortness of breath.
Doctors mainly use magnesium to treat people who are having severe asthma flare-ups.
Copper is an essential trace mineral necessary for survival. It is found in all body tissues and plays a role in making red blood cells and maintaining nerve cells and the immune system.
It also helps the body form collagen and absorb iron, and plays a role in energy production.
Most copper in the body is found in the liver, brain, heart, kidneys, and skeletal muscle.
Low copper levels have been linked to high cholesterol and high blood pressure. One group of researchers has suggested that some patients with heart failure may benefit from copper supplements.
Studies have shown that copper is essential for:
- Efficient communication between nerve cells
- Maintenance of healthy skin and connective tissue
- Wound healing
- Structural integrity and function of heart and blood vessels
- Growth of new blood vessels
- Proper structure and function of circulating blood cells
- Formation of the cells of our immune system (white blood cells)
- Maintenance of a healthy and effective immune response
- Generation and storage of energy in the ‘power plants’ of our cells, the mitochondria.
The trace mineral boron is a micronutrient with diverse and vitally important roles in metabolism that render it necessary for plant, animal, and human health, and as recent research suggests.
Boron significantly improves magnesium absorption and deposition in bone, yet another beneficial effect of boron’s inhibition of 17β-estradiol degradation. Thus, boron is a factor in magnesium’s myriad beneficial effects. Magnesium’s importance been set out above.
In a recent study, boron protected animals chronically exposed to low levels of malathion, a widely used pesticide that causes oxidative stress even at the low levels at which humans are exposed to it in the food supply. In this study it was found that boron decreased oxidative stress caused by harmful insecticides.
Studies have also shown that Boron is effective in reducing certain inflammatory markers called cytokines – specifically, hs-CRP and TNF-α. These two cytokines have been associated with breast cancer, obesity, insulin resistance, lung cancer, heart disease, depression, and more.
Molybdenum is an essential element. It’s a co-factor for several enzymes. It is stored mainly in the liver, kidneys, spleen, lungs, brain, and muscles.
Molybdenum is a part of several enzyme systems. These enzymes are in charge of the breakdown of xanthine, hypoxanthine, and sulfite. They also break down and detoxify many harmful compounds.
Vitamin B-12 is an essential nutrient that keeps the body functioning properly. Symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency include fatigue, low mood, and nerve problems.
The human body does not create vitamin B-12, so people must get this nutrient from their diet. It is crucial for making DNA and red blood cells, and it helps support the nervous system.
A fast heart rate may be a symptom of vitamin B-12 deficiency.
The heart may start to beat faster to make up for the reduced number of red blood cells in the body.
Anemia puts pressure on the heart to push a higher volume of blood around the body and to do it more quickly. This response is the body's way of trying to ensure that enough oxygen circulates through all of the body's systems and reaches all the organs.
Anemia that results from vitamin B-12 deficiency may cause a person to feel a little short of breath. It is possible to link this to a lack of red blood cells and a fast heartbeat.
Anyone who is experiencing real difficulty breathing should see a doctor straight away.
A new study carried out by The University of Western Australia, the Busselton Health Study and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital has found vitamin D deficiency can contribute to poor respiratory functioning and health in middle-aged adults.
The researchers measured serum vitamin D levels, lung function and respiratory symptoms in more than 5000 baby boomers at the Busselton Healthy Ageing Study and found that low levels of vitamin D were associated with respiratory illnesses such as asthma and bronchitis, and respiratory symptoms common to these conditions including wheezing and chest tightness.
Studies have found that the severity chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be reduced with vitamin D supplementation and may be caused as a result of Vitamin D deficiency.
Vitamin C is in all likelihood the best known and proven immune support supplement.
Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for humans, with pleiotropic functions related to its ability to donate electrons. It is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for a family of biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzymes. Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin C supports epithelial barrier function against pathogens and promotes the oxidant scavenging activity of the skin, thereby potentially protecting against environmental oxidative stress.
Vitamin C deficiency results in impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infections. In turn, infections significantly impact on vitamin C levels due to enhanced inflammation and metabolic requirements. Furthermore, supplementation with vitamin C appears to be able to both prevent and treat respiratory and systemic infections. Prophylactic prevention of infection requires dietary vitamin C intakes that provide at least adequate, if not saturating plasma levels (i.e., 100–200 mg/day), which optimize cell and tissue levels.