LungShield© Syrup for Kids Studies

Asthma and Oxidative stress

According to the global Asthma report, Asthma is the most common chronic illness in South African children and its prevalence is increasing in both urban and rural areas. Factors that contribute to the increasing prevalence include: atopy, obesity, respiratory infection, or exposure to industrial pollution or tobacco smoke. South Africa is ranked 25th worldwide for asthma prevalence and is ranked fifth for asthma mortality, with an estimated 18.5 deaths per 100,000 asthma cases. Thus, despite substantial reductions in mortality over the past decade, the death rates in South Africa remain among the highest in the world. The lack of appropriate diagnosis, treatment or access to care may be important considerations in tackling asthma morbidity and mortality in South Africa.

The lungs have the highest exposure to atmospheric oxygen.

Oxidative stress is a unique pathophysiological condition resulting from a disrupted balance between oxidants and antioxidants. Increased level of reactive oxygen species may cause oxidative damage of all biomolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and saccharides.

Bronchial asthma is the most common chronic respiratory disease in children. It is characterized by on-going airway inflammation commonly associated with airway remodelling. Oxidative damage is not only a result of non-controlled airway inflammation but it can be significant factor in provoking asthma exacerbations and in the maintenance of asthmatic symptoms, and may play an essential role in the development and persistence of bronchial asthma. Oxidative damage may represent a potential target of the treatment of bronchial asthma.

Elderberry extract

Elderberry extract is high in vitamin C which is a natural immune booster with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Elderberry is good source of phenolic acids, flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin) and anthocyanins (compound that gives the fruit its dark purple colour). Phenolic acids and flavonols like quercetin are powerfull antioxidants. Anthocyanins contain both antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties.

A study of consisting 64 people who’d been experiencing flulike symptoms for 48 hours or less were given 15 millilitres of either elderberry syrup or placebo syrup four times a day, without knowing which one they’d been given. On average, those who took elderberry saw their symptoms clear up four days sooner than the people given the placebo syrup.

In another study Australian researchers showed that taking elderberry before an overseas flight may protect against the cold viruses that can wreak havoc in a plane’s tight quarters and stagnant air. Over the course of 20 months, they gave 312 international air travellers either 600 to 900 milligrams of elderberry extract capsules or a placebo starting 10 days before their trip. The participants kept taking elderberry (or the placebo) until four or five days after they returned home, and they tracked any cold symptoms they experienced during or after their trip. Sure enough, more people in the placebo group got sick, and they reported harsher and longer-lasting cold symptoms than those who’d taken elderberry extract.

A third trial had people experiencing flu-like symptoms take lozenges containing 175 milligrams of elderberry extract four times a day for two days. “After 24 hours, they reported less fever, nasal congestion, muscle pain, and headaches,” says Irina Todorov, M.D., an integrative physician at the Cleveland Clinic’s Center for Integrative and Lifestyle Medicine.

In conclusion Elderberry extract can be beneficial as co-therapy in the treatment of Bronchial asthma caused by oxidative damage. It can also be used as co-therapy for cold and flu symptoms.


Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required in numerous processes in the body, including; DNA synthesis, immune function, wound healing, cell growth, apoptosis, and cell invasion. Studies have shown that zinc has anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Some clinical trials have shown that Zinc can reduce the duration of cold symptoms. Other studies have shown that Zinc decrease airway inflammation and hyper responsiveness to other allergens, this suggest that Zinc could assist patients who suffer from asthma caused by allergens

Zinc delays oxidative processes on a long-term basis by inducing the expression of metallothioneins. These metal-binding cysteine-rich proteins are responsible for maintaining zinc-related cell homeostasis and act as potent electrophilic scavengers and cytoprotective agents. Furthermore, zinc increases the activation of antioxidant proteins and enzymes, such as glutathione and catalase. On the other hand, zinc exerts its antioxidant effect via two acute mechanisms, one of which is the stabilization of protein sulfhydryl against oxidation. The second mechanism consists in antagonizing transition metal-catalysed reactions. Zinc can exchange redox active metals, such as copper and iron, in certain binding sites and attenuate cellular site-specific oxidative injury.

Zinc is essential for the normal growth and development of reproductive organs and the brain, and plays a role in the normal functioning of the immune system.


Magnesium is a mineral required for several functions in the human body. It acts as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymes, regulating a number of fundamental functions such as: muscle contraction, protein synthesis, nerve function, blood glucose control, hormone receptor binding, cardiac excitability, transmembrane ion flux and blood pressure control. Moreover, magnesium also plays a vital role in energy production: crucial for ATP metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis. Magnesium also plays a role in DNA, RNA and glutathione synthesis.

These are all crucial factors needed in the growth, development and neurological wellbeing of children. Unfortunately, magnesium deficiency is a common and widespread problem. If left untreated, it will inevitably lead to metabolic dysregulation and many physical and mental health concerns

Several studies have indicated that dietary magnesium were associated with an improvement in lung function, as measured by forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV). While the mechanism of action is not entirely understood, it is possible that magnesium acts via anti-inflammatory effect and reduces lung inflammation along with the role of magnesium in regulating broncho-constrictors such as acetylcholine (Ach) and histamine. Magnesium is also a bronchodilator; it relaxes the bronchial muscles and expands the airways allowing more air to flow in and out of the lungs. This can relieve symptoms of asthma such as shortness of breath

In conclusion magnesium can reduce oxidative stress through glutathione production and also improve lung function by reducing inflammation and regulation broncho-constrictors such as histamine and Acetylcholine.


Molybdenum is an essential element. Molybdenum is a cofactor in xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, sulphite oxidase and mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component. In each case, molybdenum is bound to a complex, multiring organic component called molybdopterin, forming the entity molybdenum cofactor. Xanthine oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of purines to uric acid. The aldehyde oxidase ortholog is involved in the metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous N-heterocyclic compounds. Sulfite oxidase catalyse the terminal reaction in the degradation of sulphur amino acids cysteine and methionine.

Bioavailability of molybdenum is fairly high but depends on form, with molybdenum preparations having greater bioavailability than food-bound molybdenum. Molybdenum deficiency and toxicity are rare, possibly because of the body’s ability to adapt to a wide range of molybdenum intake levels. At low intakes of molybdenum, the fractional transfer of molybdenum from plasma to urine is lower and a greater fraction is deposited into tissues, and at high intakes of molybdenum, the opposite occurs. Molybdenum is trace mineral that is essential for life.

Vitamin D3

Vitamin D3 is an essential nutrient stimulates intestinal calcium absorption. Without vitamin D, only 10–15% of dietary calcium and about 60% of phosphorus are absorbed. Vitamin D sufficiency enhances calcium and phosphorus absorption by 30–40% and 80%, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency affects almost 50% of the population worldwide. An estimated 1 billion people worldwide, across all ethnicities and age groups, have a vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency normally presents with bone pain and muscle weakness. However, for many people, the symptoms are subtle. Yet, even without symptoms, too little vitamin D can pose health risks. Low blood levels of the vitamin have been associated with the following: Increased risk for cardiovascular disease, Cognitive impairment and severe asthma in children

Lungshield syrup contains 200IU Vitamin D3 which is below the recommended dietary allowances. The reason for this is that Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is uncommon in South Africa as seen in a study by Poopedi, Norris and Pettifor of 385 children in the Greater Johannesburg area of South Africa it was found that Vitamin D deficiency was only 7 % whereas insufficiency was 19 %

Vitamin D Receptors is present all over the body including in antigen-presenting cells, with known direct effects on innate and adaptive immunity. Vitamin D decreases cell proliferation and increases cell differentiation, stops the growth of new blood vessels, and has significant anti-inflammatory effects. New studies carried out by The University of Western Australia have found that Vitamin D deficiency correlates to poor respiratory functioning. Researchers’ measured serum Vitamin D levels, lung function and respiratory symptoms in more than 5000 patients and found that low levels of Vitamin D were associated with respiratory illness such as asthma and bronchitis.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is a micronutrient essential for a host of physiological processes in the body. This includes: development and maintenance of connective tissue, bone formation, wound healing and maintenance of healthy gums. Vitamin C helps in the synthesis and metabolism of tyrosine, tryptophan and folic acid, the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids (lower blood cholesterol), the hydroxylation of glycine, proline, lysine and catecholamine and acts as an antioxidant that protects the body against free radicals.

Bioavailability or the effective concentration of vitamin C essentially depends on its effective absorption from intestine and renal excretion. Reduced bioavailability of vitamin C is often seen in stress, alcohol intake, smoking, fever, viral illnesses, usage of antibiotics and pain killers, exposure to petroleum products or carbon monoxide and heavy metals toxicity.

Studies have shown that Vitamin C stimulate the immune system by enhancing T-cell proliferation in response to an infection. Vitamin C also supports various cellular functions in both the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin C deficiency results in impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infection. In turn infections significantly impact Vitamin C levels due to increased inflammation and metabolic requirements. This shows that Vitamin C supplementation can both prevent and treat respiratory tract infections. Another clinical use of vitamin C is to increase nonheme-iron absorption in the small intestine. Vitamin C reduces dietary iron and allows for efficient transport across the intestinal epithelium. Food sources of vitamin C or supplements, when consumed with iron, may lead to increased haemoglobin production in anaemic patients.

In conclusion Vitamin C is important in child development. It’s also a strong antioxidant which can help reduce damage to cells caused by free radicals which in turn reduces inflammation. Vitamin C is highly concentrated in immune cells which suggest that it’s an immune boosting agent.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A plays a vital role in maintaining your body’s natural defences. This includes the mucous barriers in your eyes, lungs, gut and genitals which help trap bacteria and other infectious agents. It’s also involved in the production and function of white blood cells, which help capture and clear bacteria and other pathogens from your bloodstream. This means that a deficiency in vitamin A can increase your susceptibility to infections and delay your recovery when you get sick.

Vitamin A is necessary for normal differentiation of epithelial tissues, the visual process and reproduction, and is vital for the optimal maintenance and functioning of the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most profuse nutritional deficiencies worldwide. It is associated with increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. Vitamin A also has a role as an anti-inflammatory agent. Supplementation with vitamin A has been found to be beneficial in a number of inflammatory conditions, including skin disorders such as acne vulgaris, broncho-pulmonary dysplasia and some forms of precancerous and cancer states. The present review suggests that vitamin A deficiency induces inflammation and aggravates existing inflammatory states. Supplementation with vitamin A in selected cases could decrease inflammation. The two main mechanisms which appear to be involved in the prevention of disease are the effects of vitamin A on the immune system and the effect on epithelial integrity.

Lungshield Syrup combines a blend of immune boosting and oxidative stress reducing ingredients which have shown to assist in the treatment of asthma and respiratory infections in children. Lungshield syrup is alcohol free and diabetic friendly with no added sugar and artificial sweeteners or flavourings. Lungshield syrup can also be taken as a daily immune boosting supplement especially during cold and flu season.


  • Kirkham, P & Rahman, I (2005). Oxidative stress in asthma and COPD: Antioxidants as a therapeutic strategy. Respiratory Diseases, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2005.10.015
  • Brown, K.H, Peerson, J.M & Wuehler, S.E (2001). The importance of zinc in human nutrition and estimation of the global prevalence of zinc deficiency. International Nutrition and Department of Nutrition, University of California. DOI: 10.1177/156482650102200201
  • Brown, K.H, Drake, V.J, Ho, E, Huang, L, Peerson, M & Wuehler S.E (2015). Zinc. Advances in Nutrition, Volume 6, Issue 2, March 2015, Pages 224–226. DOI:10.3945/an.114.006874
  • Al Alawi, A.M, Falhammar, H & Majoni, S.W (2017). Magnesium and Human Health: Perspectives and Research Directions. International Journal of Endocrinology. DOI: 10.1155/2018/9041694
  • Genuis, S.J & Schwalfenberg, G.K (2017). The Importance of Magnesium in Clinical Healthcare. DOI: 10.1155/2017/4179326
  • Frei, B, Lykkesfeldt, J & Michels, A.J (2014). Vitamin C. Advances in Nutrition, Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2014, Pages 16–18. DOI: 10.1007/s12291-013-0375-3
  • Chang, S & Lee, H (2019). Vitamin D and health – The missing vitamin in humans. Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, MacKay Children’s Hospital. DOI: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2019.04.007
  • Chambial, S, Dwivedi, S, John, P.J, Sharma, P & Shukla, K.K (2013). Vitamin C in Disease Prevention and Cure: An Overview. DOI: 10.1007/s12291-013-0375-3
  • Wadstein, J, Wollan, T & Zakay-Rones, Z (2004). Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. DOI: 10.1177/147323000403200205
  • Department of Virology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel. (2016). DOI: 10.3390/nu8040182
  • Lea, R.L, Tiralongo, E & Wee, S.S. Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. School of Pharmacy, Griffith University, Gold Coast campus, Queensland 4222, Australia
  • Babusikova E, Jurecekova J, Evinova A, Jesenak M, Dobrota D. Oxidative damage and bronchial asthma. In: Ghanei M, editor. Respiratory Diseases. Rijeka: InTech (2012). p. 151–76.
  • Babusikova E, Jesenak M, Racay P, Dobrota D, Kaplan P. Oxidative alternations in rat heart homogenate and mitochondria during ageing. Gen Physiol Biophys (2008) 27:115–20.
  • Poopedi, M.A., Norris, S.A. & Pettifor, J.M. 2011. Factgors influencing the vitamin D status of 10-year-old urban South African children. Public Health Nutr. 2011 Feb, 14(2):334-339.
  • Reifen, R (2002). Vitamin A as an anti-inflammatory agent. DOI: 10.1079/PNS2002172
  • Zinc supplementation to improve treatment outcomes among children diagnosed with respiratory infections:
  • A randomized controlled trial of zinc supplementation in the treatment of acute respiratory tract infection in Thai children:
  • Magnesium for treatment of asthma in children:
  • Dietary Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium, and Children’s Lung Function:
  • Vitamin D and respiratory infections in infants and toddlers: a nutri-shine perspective:
  • Vitamin D and asthma in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies:
  • Vitamin D status and lung function in children with asthma:
  • Vitamin A Deficiency and the Lung:
  • Vitamin A supplementation to improve treatment outcomes among children diagnosed with respiratory infections:
  • Improving fetal lung development with vitamin C and reducing asthma in children:
  • Vitamin C supplementation for prevention and treatment of pneumonia:
  • Black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) supplementation effectively treats upper respiratory symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials:
  • How Does Elderberry Help Fight Cold and Flu Viruses?

Get it today!

LungShield© Syrup for Kids is available from all leading pharmacies without a prescription. However, if your pharmacy does not stock LungShield© Syrup for Kids, ask your pharmacist to order for you at no extra charge.

Click here to find a pharmacy closest to you.

You could also shop from the comfort of your home or office online for delivery to your door: